Although the noxious effects of smoking are well-known and rates of tobacco users are declining, an estimated 38 million American adults still smoke cigarettes. The deleterious consequences of cigarette use are especially evident in the cardiometabolic field, with smokers facing significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Not only are smokers 30% to 40% more likely to develop diabetes than nonsmokers, but they also have an increased likelihood of difficulties with insulin dosing and disease management. Despite the critical need for personalized smoking cessation services and their tremendous importance, such programs are lacking within many health systems.
Characterized by the reduction of blood flow, limb pain, poor wound healing, and other symptoms, peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 10% of Americans over the age of 69. Although the majority of cases remain undiagnosed and there is a lack of public awareness surrounding the condition, prevalence is high – the CDC estimates about 8.5 million people suffer from PAD in the United States.