Lifestyle factors and their modifications have long been established as critical elements for the successful prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease. In addition to dietary habits and physical activity levels, sleep patterns are also a key behavior to consider in interventions. Sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders are known risk factors for a variety of cardiometabolic conditions ranging from obesity and hypertension to stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. As they affect the quality, timing, and duration of sleep, sleep disorders significantly increase both physical and mental health risks and therefore require the recognition of their substantial impact on patient wellbeing.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death among women who experience a notable increase in disease risk after menopause. Female patients tend to develop coronary heart disease several years later than men leading experts to believe that the menopause transition (MT) contributes to an increase in cardiometabolic risk. However, only 56% of women are aware of this association, according to data from a 2012 survey by the American Heart Association (AHA) and that from a 2017 Women’s Heart Alliance study.
In the clinical setting, physicians often apply the same guidelines to patients regardless of their sex although, overwhelming evidence underscores the existence of significant sex differences in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. While the number of clinical trials that include women as participant subjects has grown, a comprehensive gender-specific analysis of both the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions is lacking.