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Tag: CVD

Coronary Artery Calcium as a Predictor of ASCVD Risk

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death in the US, and prevention of ASCVD is a public health priority in order to minimize its impacts on morbidity and mortality. Global CVD risk assessment is an integrated approach to evaluate the total risk of developing CVD over a given period (usually 10 years) based on several risk factors, including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, family history, overweight and obesity. These risk factors have been incorporated in several algorithms for the primary prevention of CVD, including the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) developed by American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA). However, despite the development of several algorithms for risk assessments aimed to prevent CVD events, the overall disease burden has increased. CVD events can occur even in individuals that do not have risk factors, and the dependence of CVD risk assessment on the presence or absence of conventional risk factors may not allow for accurate risk prediction, given the fact that CVD is multi-factorial and progresses in a continuum.

As a result, novel risk assessment methods, including coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, may be necessary to improve ASCVD risk prediction and to better guide treatment options. The utility of the CAC score in preventing CVD risk in asymptomatic individuals has been demonstrated in several results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a study designed to evaluate the characteristics of subclinical atherosclerosis and risk factors for ASCVD progression. However, most of the outcomes of these studies have evaluated coronary heart disease (CHD) with short to intermediate follow-ups.

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The Harms from Cigarette Smoking

A large study from the BMJ indicates that smokers must quit cigarettes, rather than simply cut back on them, to significantly lower their risk of heart disease and stroke.

Statistics demonstrated that those who smoked even one cigarette each day were still about 50% more likely to develop CVD, and 30% more likely to have a stroke, than people who had never smoked.

Cardiovascular disease, not cancer, is the greatest mortality risk for smoking, causing about 48% of smoking-related premature deaths. While the percentage of adults in the UK who smoked had been falling, the proportion of people who smoked one to five cigarettes a day had been rising steadily, researchers said.

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